Implementasi Komunikasi Data Berbasis ZigBee pada SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) PLTMh

Beny Firman, Suharyanto Suharyanto, Eka Firmansyah


Abstract—Recently, Microhydro Power Center (Pusat Listrik Tenaga Mikrohidro or PLTMh) has been spread widely the energy electric generator. PLTMh control system in Indonesia often uses automatic control system. One of the reasons for this is that the operation and monitoring of the PLTMh could be done from a distance. One of PLTMh models of remote control is known as SCADA. One of the main parts of SCADA is Master Station (MS), Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) & Communication System. Communication System in SCADA can be built in several choices: wired or wireless. Remote control can be built using Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) system. The application of WSN in operating SCADA could ease installation and increase communication reliability. This study applied ZigBee technology on PLTMh SCADA control data communication. ZigBee was chosen because it’s free of operation and licensing charge, had OSI feature and low cost, those are reasons why they are best suited to PLTMh application. In the application, ZigBee hardware was divided into several parts: Coordinator on Master Station(MS) (one unit), End Devices which were each RTU unit point (two units) and Router as a data hooping between Coordinator & End Device (one unit). The furthest point between Coordinator and End Device through Router could reach 645 meters. This was tested in LOS (Line of Sight) condition. RSSI signal on ZigBee was used to see the strength of signal reception on Coordinator as data collector. RSSI score (-dBm) became smaller at maximum distance variation. This meant signal power at data jump point became lower. ZigBee based data communication to form SCADA network had been built well in join a network model, which was between Coordinator — Router — End Device at the furthest distance, 645 meters, with signal power of -82dBm.

Intisari—Pusat Listrik Tenaga Mikrohidro (PLTMh) telah banyak dikembangkan sebagai penyedia energi. Sistem pengendalian PLTMh di Indonesia telah banyak menggunakan sistem pengendali otomatis. Hal ini dilakukan agar pengoperasian dan pemantauan dapat dilakukan dari jarak jauh. Salah satu model pengendali jarak jauh PLTMh dikenal dengan nama SCADA. Bagian utama dari SCADA adalah Master Station (MS), Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) & Sistem Komunikasi. Sistem Komunikasi dalam SCADA dapat dibangun dalam beberapa pilihan baik wired maupun wireless. Pengendalian jarak jauh dapat dibangun dengan menggunakan sistem Jaringan Sensor Nirkabel (WSN). Penerapan WSN dalam pengoperasian SCADA mampu mempermudah instalasi dan meningkatkan kehandalan komunikasi. Penelitian ini menerapkan teknologi ZigBee untuk komunikasi data pengendalian SCADA PLTMh. ZigBee dipilih karena bebas biaya operasi dan lisensi, fitur OSI dan rendahnya biaya peranti
sehingga sesuai untuk aplikasi PLTMh. Pada penerapannya perangkat keras ZigBee dibagi menjadi beberapa bagian:1 buah Coordinator pada bagian Master Station (MS), 2 buah End Device yaitu pada masing-masing titik unit RTU dan 1 buah Router sebagai pelompat data antara Coordinator & End Device. Jarak terjauh antara Coordinator dan End Device dengan melewati Router dapat mencapai 645meter, pengujian tersebut dilakukan dalam keadaan LOS (Line of Sight). Sinyal RSSI pada ZigBee dimanfaatkan untuk melihat besar kekuatan penerimaan sinyal pada Coordinator sebagai pengumpul data. Nilai RSSI (-dBm) menjadi semakin kecil pada variasi jarak maksimal, ini berarti kekuatan sinyal yang terjadi pada titik lompatan data semakin rendah. Komunikasi data berbasis ZigBee untuk membentuk jaringan SCADA sudah dapat dibangun dengan baik pada model join a network yaitu antara Coordinator – Router – End Device pada jarak terjauh 645 meter dengan kekuatan sinyal -82dBm.

Kata kunci – WSN, ZigBee, SCADA, Pusat Listrik Tenaga Mikrohidro(PLTMh)

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