Desain Kerangka Kerja Permainan Digital Sebagai Media Terapi Kemampuan Sosial Anak Autis

Rahadian Kurniawan, Restu Rakhmawati, Izzati Muhimmah, Dimas Panji Eka Jalaputra

Abstract


This study discusses the process of design, implementation and evaluation of game frameworks to enhance social skills therapy for children with autism. Children with autism have unique characters, so they have special preferences. The design of a digital game framework for children with autism is also still very limited. The framework design process is obtained from the analysis of commercial digital game components played by children with autism, research that discusses the design of digital games for children with autism, and consultation with experts, psychologists, and therapists. The proposed framework is then used as a guideline for developing multiplayer games. The multiplayer games is a proof of concept of the proposed framework. From the result of evaluation, this multiplayer game has been able to be used to enhance eye gaze tracking, initiation, and reciprocal interaction in children with autism.

Keywords


kerangka kerja; desain permainan digital; terapi kemampuan sosial; autisme

Full Text:

PDF

References


Mental Disorders: A glossary and Guide to Their Classification in Accordance with the 10th Revision of International Classification of Diseases: Research Diagnostic Criteria (ICD-10), World Health Organization, 1993.

American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. Washington DC, USA: American Psychiatric Association, 2013.

S.A. Poovathinal, A. Anitha, R. Thomas, M. Kaniamattam, N. Melempatt, A. Anilkumar, dan M. Meena, “Global Prevalence of Autism: A Mini-Review,” SciFed Journal of Autism, Vol. 2, No. 1, hal. 1–9, 2018.

N. Lyon, D.I. Leitman, dan J. Zhu, “Combining Speech Intervention and Cooperative Game Design Methodologies for Children with ASD,” Proc. 1st Int. Jt. Conf. Digit. Games Res. Assoc., Vol. 13, No. 1, hal. 1–16, 2016.

S. Bernardini, K. Porayska-Pomsta, dan T.J. Smith, “ECHOES: An Intelligent Serious Game for Fostering Social Communication in Children with Autism,” Inf. Sci. (Ny)., Vol. 264, hal. 41–60, 2014.

R. Kurniawan, A. Mahtarami, dan R. Rakhmawati, “GEMPA: Game Edukasi sebagai Media Sosialisasi Mitigasi Bencana Gempa Bumi bagi Anak Autis,” J. Nas. Tek. Elektro dan Teknol. Inf., Vol. 6, No. 2, hal. 174–183, 2017.

R. Kurniawan, W.M. Purnamasari, R. Rakhmawati, dan D.P.E. Jalaputra, “Development of Game for Self-Help Toilet Learning for Children with Autism,” CommIT (Communication Inf. Technol. J., Vol. 12, No. 1, hal. 1–12, 2018.

T.L. Otero, R.B. Schatz, A.C. Merrill, dan S. Bellini, “Social Skills Training for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Follow-Up,” Child Adolesc. Psychiatr. Clin. N. Am., Vol. 24, No. 1, hal. 99–115, 2015.

A.J. Bohlander, F. Orlich, dan C.K. Varley, “Social Skills Training for Children with Autism,” Pediatr. Clin. North Am., Vol. 59, No. 1, hal. 165–174, 2012.

S. Lindgreen dan A. Doobay, “Evidence-Based Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorders,” The University of Iowa, Iowa City, USA, Research Report, hal. 1–24, 2011.

A. Woodcock, D. Georgiou, J. Jackson, dan A. Woolner, “Designing a Tailorable Environment for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders,” Ergon. Child. Educ. Environ., No. 228, hal. 1–6, 2006.

N. Aresti-Bartolome dan B. Garcia-Zapirain, “Cognitive Rehabilitation System for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Serious Games: A Pilot Study,” Biomed. Mater. Eng., Vol. 26, hal. S811–S824, 2015.

Y. Feng dan Y. Cai, “A Gaze Tracking System for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders,” dalam Simulation and Serious Games for Education, W. Trooster, Ed., Berlin, Germany: Springer, 2017, hal. 137–145.

R. Kurniawan, R. Rakhmawati, dan W.M. Purnamasari, “Game Edukasi Pembelajaran Interaksi Mata bagi Anak Autis,” Seminar Nasional Aplikasi Teknologi Informasi, 2018, hal. 68–76.

L. Chua, J. Goh, Z.T. Nay, L. Huang, dan Y. Cai, “ICT-enabled Emotional Learning For Special Needs Education,” dalam Simulation and Serious Games for Education, W. Trooster, Ed., Berlin, Germany: Springer, 2017, hal. 29–45.

K. Malisova, K. Mania, S. Moysiadou, dan E. Kourkoutas, “Tangram Quests: A Tablet Adventure Game Assisting Children with High Functioning Autism to Enhance Their Communicative and Social Skills,” Edulearn15 Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Educ. New Learn. Technol., 2015, hal. 481–487.

R. Kurniawan, I. Muhimmah, dan R. Asy’Ari, “Game Pembelajaran Ekspresi dan Emosi Wajah untuk Anak Autis,” Teknomatika, Vol. 9, No. 1, hal. 1–12, 2016.

C. Almeida, R. Fernandes, dan A. Paula, “STAR: Speech Therapy with Augmented Reality for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders,” International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems, 2014, hal. 379–396.

K. Khowaja, “A Serious Game Design Framework for Vocabulary Learning of Children With Autism,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2017.

S. Baldassarri, L. Passerino, S. Ramis, I. Riquelme, dan F.J. Perales, “Videogame-based Case Studies for Improving Communication and Attention in Children with ASD,” Proc. XIX Int. Conf. Hum. Comput. Interact. - Interacción 2018, 2018, hal. 1–8.

R. Kurniawan, A. Mahtarami, dan T.P. Lestari, “Aplikasi Multimedia Pembelajaran Metode PECS (Picture Exchange Communication System) untuk Membantu Perkembangan Komunikasi dan Interaksi Anak Autis,” Cybermatika, Vol. 3, No. 2, hal. 16–25, 2015.

D. Hughes, “The Design and Evaluation of a Video Game to Help Train Perspective-taking and Empathy in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder,” Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Central Florida, Orlando, USA, 2014.

R. Kurniawan, Y.H.G. Hasibuan, D.P.E. Jalaputra, dan R. Rakhmawati, “FarmBit: Prototipe Pembelajaran Interaksi Sosial untuk Anak Autis Berbasis Game Multiplayer,” Seminar Nasional Informatika Medis (SNIMed), 2017, hal. 42–48.

G.F. Mireya, A. Raposo, dan M. Suplino, “PAR: A Collaborative Game for Multitouch Tabletop to Support Social Interaction of Users with Autism,” Procedia Comput. Sci., Vol. 27, hal. 84–93, 2014.

L. Malinverni, J. Mora-Guiard, V. Padillo, L. Valero, A. Hervás, dan N. Pares, “An Inclusive Design Approach for Developing Video Games for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder,” Comput. Human Behav., Vol. 71, hal. 535–549, 2017.

J. Jeuring, R. van Rooij, dan N. Pronost, The 5/10 method: A Method for Designing Educational Games, Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2014, Vol. 8605, hal. 364–369.

T. Renanita, M.A. Hakim, dan K.W. Yuniarti, “Vulnerable Factors of Sadness Among Adolescents in Indonesia: An Exploratory Indigenous Research,” Humanit. (Jurnal Psikol. Indones.), Vol. 9, No. 1, hal. 1–11, 2012.

I.A. Rum dan R. Heliati, "Modul Metode Delphi," Universitas Padjajaran, Bandung, Indonesia, Modul, hal. 1-15, 2018.

J.M. Keller, Motivational Design for Learning and Performance: The ARCS Model Approach, Berlin, Germany: Springer Science & Business Media, 2009.

D. Eridani, P.I. Santosa, dan R. Ferdiana, “Implikasi Game Edukasi 2D dan 3D: Mengenal Huruf dan Angka Terhadap Anak,” J. Nas. Tek. Elektro dan Teknol. Inf., Vol. 3, No. 1, hal. 1–5, 2014.

T. Fullerton, Game Design Workshop: A Playcentric Approach to Creating Innovative Games, San Fransisco, USA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2008.

A. Wilkins, R. Cleave, N. Grayson, dan L. Wilson, “Typography for Children may be Inappropriately Designed,” J. Res. Read., Vol. 32, No. 4, hal. 402–412, 2009.

M.E. O’Haire, S.J. Mckenzie, A.M. Beck, dan V. Slaughter, “Animals May Act as Social Buffers: Skin Conductance Arousal in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Social Context,” Dev. Psychobiol., Vol. 57, No. 5, hal. 584–595, 2015.

K. Broekhuizen, W. Kroeze, M.N.M. Van Poppel, A. Oenema, dan J. Brug, “A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials on the Effectiveness of Computer-Tailored Physical Activity and Dietary Behavior Promotion Programs: An Update,” Ann. Behav. Med., Vol. 44, No. 2, hal. 259–286, 2012.

M.W. Kreuter, V.J. Strecher, dan B. Glassman, “One Size Does Not Fit All: The Case for Tailoring Print Materials,” Ann. Behav. Med., Vol. 21, No. 4, hal. 276–283, 1999.

N.A. Guérin, K.E. Rodriguez, M.T. Brodhead, dan M.E. O’Haire, “Assessing Preferences for Animals in Children with Autism: A New Use for Video-Based Preference Assessment,” Front. Vet. Sci., Vol. 4, No. March, hal. 1–6, 2017.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22146/jnteti.v8i3.517

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Jurnal Nasional Teknik Elektro dan Teknologi Informasi (JNTETI)

JNTETI (Jurnal Nasional Teknik Elektro dan Teknologi Informasi)

Departemen Teknik Elektro dan Teknologi Informasi, Fakultas Teknik Universitas Gadjah Mada
Jl. Grafika No 2. Kampus UGM Yogyakarta 55281
+62 274 552305
jnteti@ugm.ac.id