Skema Kendali Ball-Balancing Robot Secara Nirkabel

Gunawan Dewantoro, Franciscus Dalu Setiaji, Edwin C. Mone

Abstract


Abstract—The control system and algorithm of robot keeps developing vigorously nowadays, including that of balancing robot which is an unstable system. And one of those robots is ball-balancing robot which has two degree of freedoms and is the advanced development of the universal two-wheel robots. However, these robots have not taken navigation control into account. These research aims to implement ball-balancing robot with wireless navigation control.The ball-balancing robot is a module which its equilibrium is controlled such that it tends to 0° for both θ as well as ψ angles, using two PID controllers. In addition, PID based speed control of the DC motors are also required. The inclination angle data are acquired by accelerometer and gyroscope simultaneously. The data processing and robot control are processed by ATMega2560 microcontroller. The system testing includes the accuracy of sensors data processing, PID control system, and the motion control of the robot. This control system has been realized but in general still has drawbacks. This robot is still sluggish to respond the changes of set points. This system only moves freely with disturbances up to 7o. This arises from the mechanical design limitation.

Intisari— Sistem kendali dan algoritma pengendalian robot terus mengalami perkembangan dewasa ini, salah satunya adalah pengendalian keseimbangan balancing robot di mana sistem ini bersifat tidak stabil. Salah satu balancing robot yang mulai dikembangkan akhir-khir ini adalah ball-balancing robot yang memiliki dua derajat kebebasan dan merupakan pengembangan dari two wheel robot umumnya. Namun robot yang sedang berkembang ini tidak memberikan pengendalian gerakan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengimplementasikan ball-balancing robot yang dapat dikendalikan gerakannya secara nirkabel. Modul ball-balancing robot adalah modul utama di mana robot dikendalikan keseimbangannya pada titik 0° baik untuk kemiringan sudut θ maupun ψ , dengan menggunakan dua buah sistem kendali PID. Selain itu, sistem kendali PID untuk pengendalian kecepatan motor DC juga diperlukan. Inputan data kemiringan sudut menggunakan sensor akselerometer dan sensor giroskop. Pengolahan data dan pengendalian robot diproses oleh sebuah mikrokontroler Atmega2560. Pengujian sistem meliputi pengujian keakuratan pengolahan data-data sensor yang digunakan terutama sensor kemiringan sudut, sistem kendali PID dan pengendalian gerak robot. Sistem kendali ini sudah direalisasikan namun sistem secara umum masih memiliki kelemahan di mana sistem kendali ini tidak cukup cepat untuk merespon perubahan setpoint yang diberikan. Sistem hanya dapat bergerak bebas dengan sudut gangguan maksimal 7°. Hal ini disebabkan karena keterbatasan desain mekanik sistem.

Kata Kunci— Ball-balancing robot, PID, akselerometer, giroskop, complementary filter.


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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22146/jnteti.v3i2.67

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